Roman Catholics, however, would have no such freedom. [2], During Edward's reign, the Church of England preached justification by faith alone as a central teaching,[3] in contrast to the Catholic teaching that the contrite person could cooperate with God towards their salvation by performing good works. From across the sea, an art revolution is coming. However, it had two major weaknesses: membership loss as church papists conformed fully to the Church of England, and a shortage of priests. [73] They also acted as a "Church government in exile", providing Catholics in England with advice and instructions. . After Elizabeth's death, the Puritans were challenged by a high church, Arminian party that gained power during the reign of Charles I. There were 10,000 parishes in England at this time so this shows that the religious settlement was largely successful. [35], The most significant revision was a change to the Communion Service that added the words for administering sacramental bread and wine from the 1549 prayer book to the words in the 1552 book. From Hooker, Anglicanism "inherited its belief in the place of reason as an authority for action, its esteem for continuity over the Reformation divide, and a hospitality towards sacramental modes of thought". The papal bull Regnans in Excelsis released Elizabeth's Catholic subjects from any obligation to obey her. Both attempts failed, mainly because of the Queen's opposition. [85] In England, however, Protestants were forced to operate within a church structure unchanged since medieval times with the same threefold orders of bishop, priest and deacon along with church courts that continued to use medieval canon law. [28], The alternative title was less offensive to Catholic members of Parliament, but this was unlikely to have been the only reason for the alteration. Edward died at age seventeen in 1533, and England's official religion suffered dramatic changes again. The proposed settlement was roundly rejected and adulterated by the House of Lords, with its Catholic majority. Essentially, they covered all the matters not yet set out in previous legislation and aimed to definitively establish what was meant by the English version of Protestantism, otherwise known as Anglicism. [54], Music in the Church of England was limited to biblical texts and music sung during worship in the early church. 1559: Parliament passes the Act of Uniformity and the Act of Supremacy. Taken together the Acts of Supremacy and Uniformity, supplemented by Royal Injunctions in July 1559, completed the settlement of religion upon which the Church of England is based. [79] The discovery of the Ridolfi plota Catholic conspiracy to overthrow Elizabeth and place Mary, Queen of Scots on the thronefurther alarmed the English government. [63], The Elizabethan settlement was further consolidated by the adoption of a moderately Protestant doctrinal statement called the Thirty-nine Articles of Religion. The Church of England's refusal to adopt the patterns of the Continental Reformed churches deepened conflict between Protestants who desired greater reforms and church authorities who prioritised conformity. It was given statutory force by the Subscription Act, which required all new ministers to affirm their agreement with this confessional statement. After Queen Mary I died in 1558, Elizabeth I became queen. One of her first acts as queen sought to heal the religious division brought on by the past half-century by treading a middle ground between the two sides: a new united Church of England. However, many Englishmen disagreed with its "middle ground" approach to religion to pacify Protestants and Catholics alike. Two other important features of the Act of Uniformity were, first, church attendance was made compulsory. [60], Devotional singing at home was shared between family and friends. [44], In the summer of 1559, the government conducted a royal visitation of the dioceses. Mary died in 1558, and England again faced upheaval in the name of religion. Since the Act of Uniformity 1549 which approved the first prayer book was passed in January, it is likely that the provisions of the 1549 prayer book were intended, even though Edward's second year ended several months before the book was published. These included injunctions allowing processions to take place at Rogationtide and requirements that clergy receive permission to marry from the bishop and two justices of the peace. The next step followed quick on the heels of the first and was the May 1559 CE Act of Uniformity. This act ignited the English Reformation and established a unique form of Protestantism known as Anglicanism as the official religion. Within the Church of England, a Calvinist consensus developed among leading churchmen. It is more accurate to call Whitgift and those like him conformists, since the word conservative carries connotations of Catholicism. Keeping the hierarchy of archbishops and bishops. The Act of Supremacy of 1558 re-established the Church of England's independence from Rome, and Parliament conferred on Elizabeth the title of Supreme Governor of the Church of England. Was there a middle ground between Catholics and Protestants? [108], During the reign of Charles I, the Arminians were ascendant and closely associated with William Laud, Archbishop of Canterbury (16331645). The remaining bishops were all Catholics appointed during Mary's reign, and Elizabeth's advisers hoped they could be persuaded to continue serving. [118] Although Elizabeth I "cannot be credited with a prophetic latitudinarian policy which foresaw the rich diversity of Anglicanism", her preferences made it possible. Most Puritans, however, remained in the Church of England. This division began during the reign of her father, Henry VIII. It seemed that out of sight was out of mind, and this principle would apply to practising Christians of both sides in the debate. Puritan clergy in this movement organised local presbyteries or classes, from which the movement took its name. His lineage was unstable, and his production of a male heir was necessary. When Elizabeth I ascended to the throne, she took up the articles and gave them to a Convocation of religious leaders for revision for the new Church of England. The Elizabethan Religious Settlement is the name given to the religious and political arrangements made for England during the reign of Elizabeth I (1558-1603). [12] She also kept many of her religious views private, which can make it difficult to determine what she believed. It included the Act of Supremacy, Act of Uniformity, a new Book of Common Prayer, and the Thirty-Nine Articles. A.G. Dickens wrote of widespread popular support for Protestantism that made the Elizabethan settlement inevitable and immediately supported. Most Catholics, however, were "church papists"Catholics who outwardly conformed to the established church while maintaining their Catholic faith in secret. Act of Supremacy (1559): This Act established Elizabeth I as Supreme Governor of the Church of England. Declaration on the proceedings of a Conference at Westminster, March 1559 (SP12/3/52, f.163r-164v) These are extracts from a report on the conference on religion, held during the Easter recess of Queen Elizabeth's first Parliament. The belief that the wafer and wine literally transform into Christ's body and blood during Communion service. ", Salvation comes from God's grace alone and not through good works. What historian argued that the Elizabethan reforms were slow to take hold in some regions of England? Elizabethan Church, the Thirty-nine Articles of Religion, provides ample support to this authors contention that the Elizabethan Church Settlement was not really a via media, the middle road, but one that was distinctly Protestant. [95] Under Field's leadership, the Classical Movement was active among Puritans within the Church of England throughout the 1570s and 1580s. [90], In 1572, a bill was introduced in the Queen's 4th Parliament that would allow Protestants, with their bishop's permission, to omit ceremonies from the 1559 prayer book, and bishops would be further empowered to license clergymen to use the French and Dutch stranger church liturgies. Large numbers of deans, archdeacons, cathedral canons, and academics (mostly from Oxford but also from Cambridge) lost their positions. Its purpose was to give the common people access to liturgies and prayers. The Archbishop of Canterbury remained at the top, the Archbishop of York was number two, and the monarch appointed the bishops and archbishops. The Elizabethan Settlement was religious legislation that provided a compromise between English Catholics and Protestants. Elizabeth had taken the decision to arrest any Catholic bishops that did not accept her authority as sovereign over them. This license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon this content non-commercially, as long as they credit the author and license their new creations under the identical terms. Crime and Punishment in Industrial Britain, Advantages of North and South in Civil War, African Americans in the Revolutionary War, Civil War Military Strategies of North and South, Environmental Effects of The Columbian Exchange, Native Americans in the Revolutionary War. While a disappointment for Puritans, the provisions were aimed at satisfying moderate Puritans and isolating them from their more radical counterparts. [119], Supreme Governor of the Church of England, The First Blast of the Trumpet Against the Monstruous Regiment of Women, History of the Puritans under Queen Elizabeth I, A View of Popish Abuses yet remaining in the English Church, "Music and Reform in France, England, and Scotland", Elizabethan Religious Settlement - World History Encyclopedia, Documents Illustrative of English Church History,, This page was last edited on 7 February 2023, at 09:43. Meaning he could finally divorce Catherine! The successful defence of the Kingdom against invasion on such an unprecedented scale boosted the prestige of England's Queen Elizabeth I and encouraged a sense of English pride and nationalism. [85], There were objections over the prayer book, including certain formulas and responses, the sign of the cross in baptism, the surplice and use of a wedding ring in marriage. [53] The bishops thought that Catholicism was widespread among the old clergy, but priests were rarely removed because of a clergy shortage that began with an influenza epidemic in 1558. By registering you get free access to our website and app (available on desktop AND mobile) which will help you to super-charge your learning process. [52] Through the mid-1650s, there were an estimated 800 clergy who resigned or were deprived for refusal to conform. [67] Over time, however, this "survivalist Catholicism" was undermined by pressures to conform, giving way to an underground Catholicism completely separate from the Church of England. The upheaval by yet another major religious reform resulted in rebellion in many English provinces. The first act passed by the House of Commons in February 1559 joined together a bill of supremacy, establishing Queen Elizabeth I as head of the church, with one of uniformity, dealing with the type of faith and service.

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