In 1950 the population of Mumbai was around 3 million. Overcrowding, traffic congestion, environmental pollution, and widespread poverty, however, remained major ongoing problems. 1900 - By this year, 45 trains of Western Railway in each direction . [199] Attacks included assault on North Indian taxi drivers and damage of their vehicles. Later, even this became impossible, and Laws provided for compensation for workplace accidents. Avabai, Lady [17][24] King Bhimdev founded his kingdom in the region in the late 13th century[25] and established his capital in Mahikawati (present day Mahim). in this century. Thus, the increase in new territories claimed in the first 75 years of the 19th century averaged about 83,000 square miles (215,000 square kilometres) a year. [88] In 1769, Fort George was built on the site of the Dongri Fort[89] and in 1770, the Mazagaon docks were built. Plague, for example, broke out in 1896. The first War of Independence The First Indian They were given a mission by the growing social problems of in-dustry, cities, immigration, and prolonged depressions, rst in the 1870s and later in the 1890s. [175] Nehru Science Centre, India's largest interactive science centre, was established in 1972 at Worli in Bombay. The police commissioner, Charles Forjett arrested By the mid 19th century, Bombay had developed into one of the most important ports and trading centres in India. [66] A customs house was also built. From farm to city Please help by moving some material from it into the body of the article. There was a rapid During the 19th century, religious superstitions and social . [187], During the 21st century, the city suffered several bombings. An eruption here some 66mya is thought to have laid down the Deccan Traps, a vast bed of basalt lava that covers parts of central India. the rooms were often occupied by several people. Introduction. This work was completed in 1845, but The following is a timeline of the growth of Mumbai's population over the last four centuries: Language links are at the top of the page across from the title. The city's infrastructure was improved considerably with the construction of new highways and bridges, expansion of port facilities, and the inauguration of new public-transit systems. The American Civil War (186165) and the resulting cutoff of cotton supplies to Britain caused a great trade boom in Bombay. In 1849 the Great Indian Peninsular (GIP) Railways was incorporated The needs of the Industrial Revolution in 19th-century Europe greatly contributed to the (1) growth of overseas empires (2) beginning of the triangular trade (3) development of international peacekeeping organizations (4) promotion of political and economic equality in Asia and Africa Click the card to flip 1 Click the card to flip 1 / 39 Pratapbimba later reconquered the islands which he ruled till 1331. Montstuart Elphinstone By the turn of the 19th century, however, external events helped stimulate the growth of the city. [48] Parel, Wadala, Sion, and Worli were granted to Manuel Serro between 1545 and 1548, during the viceroyalty of Joo de Castro. Forjett had the alleged ring-leaders blown from cannon on that day. 75 people were killed and 350 were injured. The construction of the new mint commenced in 1825. Sometimes, several broke out this year. [93], In 1782, William Hornby assumed the office of Governor of Bombay, and initiated the Hornby Vellard engineering project of uniting the seven islands into a single landmass. The goods were subjected to Maratha regulations with respect to taxes and a 30% toll was levied on all goods into the city from Salsette. [158] The Royal Indian Navy Mutiny of 18 February 1946 in Bombay marked the first and most serious revolt by the Indian sailors of the Royal Indian Navy against British rule. [66] George Oxenden became the first Governor of Bombay under the English East India Company on 23 September 1668. Global sea levels have risen faster than since the beginning of the 20th Century, and it has become much worse in recent years. [45] The marriage treaty of Charles II of England and Catherine of Portugal on 8 May 1661 placed Bombay in British possession as a part of Catherine's dowry to Charles. the Each of the studies reviewed here devotes considerable attention to developments since the 1920s. The University of Bombay was the first modern institution of higher education to be established in India in 1857. [109] The earliest riots occurred at Mahim in 1850, in consequence of a dispute between two rival factions of Khojas. My semester final project is regarding the industrialization and deindustrialization of Mumbai/Bombay centered around two significant periods, the plague of 1896 and the textile mills strike of 1984. A crowded town had grown up north of the walled fort and the eastern port The decisive battle The area of Bombay State increased, after several erstwhile princely states that joined the Indian union were integrated into Bombay State. The last British troops to leave India, the First Battalion of the Somerset Light Infantry, passed through the arcade of the Gateway of India in Bombay on 28 February 1948,[160] ending the 282-year-long period of the British in Bombay . was called a wadi. [145] The Bombay Chronicle started by Pherozeshah Mehta, the leader of the Indian National Congress, in 1910, played an important role in the national movement until India's Independence. [16] The Greek merchant Cosmas Indicopleustes visited Kalyan (near Mumbai) during 530550. The islands were wrested from Pratapbimba's control by Mubarak Khan, a self-proclaimed regent of the Khalji dynasty, who occupied Mahim and Salsette in 1318. [121] The Bombay Electric Supply and Transport (BEST), originally set up as a tramway company: Bombay Tramway Company Limited, was established in 1873. A new development took place with the opening of [49] Salsette was granted for three years to Joo Rodrigues Dantas, Cosme Corres, and Manuel Corres. In the 19th and early 20 century, the population of Mumbai mainly consisted of those born outside. Mumbai has seen significant growth in its population between 1950 and 2020. [31] It was reconquered by Rai Qutb of the Gujarat Sultanate. of this century, the importance of Bombay as a centre of cotton trade, Those protests led to the states partition into the modern states of Gujarat and Maharashtra in 1960, and Bombay was made the capital of Maharashtra that year. 1838. [34][35], Ahmad Shah I retaliated by sending his son Jafar Khan to recapture the lost territory. [63] On 21 September 1668, the Royal Charter of 27 March 1668, led to the transfer of Bombay from Charles II to the English East India Company for an annual rent of 10 (equivalent retail price index of 1,226 in 2007) or Indian Rs 1,48,000 today. The Maratha empire under the Peshwas fell to the machinations of In the 19th century, trade unionism was mainly a movement of skilled workers. He was the first to realise that the Fort walls were now superfluous, [32], In 1526, the Portuguese established their factory at Bassein. [132] The Bombay Municipal Act was enacted in 1888 which gave the British Government wide powers of interference in civic matters. The Remaking of Bombay The last years of the 19th century ended with a textile manufacturing boom, and attracted huge numbers of workers to a city unprepared to give them healthy living quarters. the Colaba Causeway in [164] But the States Reorganisation Committee recommended a bi-lingual state for Maharashtra-Gujarat, with Bombay as its capital. Further tectonic activity in the region led to the formation of hilly islands separated by a shallow sea. Soon after its detachment, the peninsular region of the Indian plate drifted over the Runion hotspot, a volcanic hotspot in the Earth's lithosphere near the island of Runion. across the continent, resulting in the growth of highly specialized farming (Rossiter, 1979). In southern Africa, the kingdom of Lesotho was exceptional because. slums developed around the mills and the harbour. [6] Buddhist monks, scholars, and artists created the artwork, inscriptions, and sculpture of the Kanheri Caves in the mid third century BCE[9] and Mahakali Caves. He suggested the [5] After a series of attacks by the Gujarat Sultanate, the islands were recaptured by Sultan Bahadur Shah. An important reformer was Mary Carpenter, who wrote factory laws that exemplified Victorian modernization theory of the modern, regulated factory as vehicle of pedagogy and civilizational uplift. large numbers of Indians, and claimed to have uncovered a conspiracy to The bomb killed 4 people and injured 32. However, the population of Bombay was The labour force was constituted mainly An author who grew up in Mumbai calls his city an "urban catastrophe." 2 [56], The annexation of Portugal by Spain in 1580 opened the way for other European powers to follow the spice routes to India. Footnote 1 A number of rich studies have addressed the expansion of the urban centre in the context of international trade and industry, the role of imperial policy in shaping the city's geographic contours, the formation of urban communities, business entrepreneurship, the development of the textile . commemorative tablet in the gardens of the [51], The Portuguese encouraged intermarriage with the local population, and strongly supported the Roman Catholic Church. 3 Two books that helped precipitate the reassessment are Thomas Rawski, Economic Growth in Prewar China (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1990), and Loren Brandt, Commercialization and Agricultural Development in Central and Eastern China: 1870s-1930s (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1989). The next step was the completion of the Sion Causeway in [102] The success of the British campaign in the Deccan witnessed the freedom of Bombay from all attacks by native powers. This paper calls upon historians to continue to apply the tools of social history, particularly its reliance on close microcosmic studies of particular places and groups over long periods of time, as they try to bridge the gap between the early twentieth century and the later twentieth century. In 1348 the island was conquered by invading Muslim forces and became part of the kingdom of Gujarat. 1890. During the reign of Ahmad Shah I (14111443), Malik-us-Sharq was appointed governor of Mahim, and in addition to instituting a proper survey of the islands, he improved the existing revenue system of the islands. Mumbai/Bombay has long been the subject of sophisticated work by historians. According to S.C. Dube this growth can be classified in three phases: Compilation and publication of volumes on tribes and castes.

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